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Scientific Waste Management and Recycling
Wherever men live, the waste follows. Since he is responsible for waste, it is his pious duty to manage waste in scientific way. A contaminated environment places people at obvious risk of exposure to pathogens/harmful organisms that lead to infection and diseases.

In urban areas, waste generation and its handling has become an important issue. Many biotechnologies developed for waste recycling in agriculture were suitably modified to manage urban waste as well. To begin with, a household level solid waste management system was developed. Subsequently, scientific waste management systems for residential colonies were also developed. A project for IFFCO, Aonla was implemented by Morarka Foundation on turnkey basis. During this period itself, solid waste management systems for food outlets, food processing industries, restaurants and five star hotels have also been successfully developed and implemented. Recently, Morarka Foundation has also developed biotechnology solutions for waste water recycling. Many pilot projects have been successfully commissioned in last three years.

The biotechnology for waste water recycling process is based on treatment during organic and hydraulic loading. Suitable biological filters can be designed, made with natural materials. Microbes inoculated in these filters can absorb both organic and inorganic impurities of waste water. The system efficiency can be further improved by utilizing select plants, where root zone treatment can be carried out. These systems remove all harmful microbes and reduce residual BOD and COD.

To diversify biotechnology applications for industrial waste water recycling, an in-depth assessment was also carried out for textile process house at Bhilwara. With three months of continuous research, a biotechnology process has been successfully developed. In most of these biotechnology based scientific waste management solutions, though there is an initial capital investment. But, in most of these applications, the operating costs per unit of waste handled and recycled, it is almost one-third to one-fifth of normal conventional methods of waste management.

Morarka Foundation has already been awarded few more projects, notably amongst them being 50,000 litres of urban sewage waste water recycling at Udaipur and 10,00,000 litres of textile processing unit at Bhilwara.

What is waste?

Thus it can be stated that waste is unwanted or undesired material left over after the completion of a process. In other words it can also be stated that any substance or object which the holder discards or intend to discard is also waste.

Type of Waste Materials?

Basically the waste can be categorised into (a) Biodegradable Waste and (b) Non Biodegradable Waste. Biodegradable waste or, if recovered, the biodegradable component of mixed wastes (e.g. paper & food waste) can be composted or anaerobically digested to produce soil improvers and renewable fuels. Non-biodegradable waste is that waste which cannot be degraded.

Waste is broadly segregated into solid, liquid and gaseous waste materials. Waste falls into a number of different waste types. It can exist in any phase of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) or as waste heat. When released in the latter two states the wastes can be referred to as emissions. It is usually strongly linked with pollution. Waste may also be intangible in the case of wasted time or wasted opportunities. Here waste refers to things which are used inefficiently or inappropriately.

Some components of waste can be recycled once recovered from the waste stream, e.g. plastic bottles, metals, glass or paper.

There are many different waste types or waste streams which are produced by a variety of processes. Each waste type has different methods of associated waste management. The following is a list of waste types viz.: Animal By-Products, Biodegradable waste, Bulky waste, Business waste, Clinical waste, Commercial waste, Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste), Controlled waste, Domestic waste, Electronic waste (E-waste, WEEE), Farm waste, Food waste, Green waste, Grey water, Hazardous waste, Household waste, etc.


The management of different waste requires different kind of procedures to handle as the different toxic compounds that might be present in one may not be present in the other. But, Morarka Foundation aims in utilizing all natural ways of handling the waste in a nature or eco friendly manner.

Mother Nature recycles all types of waste materials. We are producing more waste materials then nature is capable of recycling and thus it results into pollution.

ECO Friendly Management

A very attractive way to change garbage into rich humus is to utilize the services of earthworms. Vermi means earthworms and culture means farming. Vermiculture means farming of earthworms through bio-degradable material. Earthworms are nature's fertilizer factory. Physically they are crushers and grinders, due to action of their gizzard. There are thousands of different species of worms, but the best manure worms is Eisenia foetida, as it works everywhere, in the indoor as well as at outdoor. They are a surface dwelling variety of worms that hate the light and reproduce at an amazing rate. In urban areas for treatment and conversion of household waste into high quality compost, a package has been developed by Morarka Foundation. The package aims at:

ECO Friendly Management

  • Creating awareness at household level regarding the issue of garbage and its proper management.

  • Collection of wastes in segregated form.

  • Conversions of organic/wet waste into high quality Vermicompost i.e. put your waste in and get the Vermicompost out there by recycling the nutrients.

  • Appropriate use of Vermicompost for planting trees, gardens, lawns, etc. to make clean and green environment surrounding our houses.
Scientific Waste Management In urban areas, waste including human excreta and waste from polluting industries are disposed through sewers. This pollutes the environment, under ground water and exposes people to infection.

Open decomposition of solid waste and sewer water through existing river systems takes very long period in natural treatment while causing many health hazards.

In many countries, initiatives to develop the skills through recycled waste materials for producing vegetables by the poor have brought about excellent results.

Waste ManagementIn some Latin American countries, vegetable production in urban areas through waste recycling have not only been able to reduce the direct and indirect costs associated with waste disposal but it has also simultaneously been able to solve the problems of urban sanitation, while becoming an income generating activity as well.

In view of above, a new approach has therefore been developed by Morarka Foundation to utilize biotechnologies for recycling of waste materials. Production of foods from recycled wastes is now also known as ECO-SANITATION.

Morarka Foundation has worked for over five years to develop technologies for recycling of segregated urban solid waste (only organic matter) are as under:
  • Household level waste management & recycling
  • Solid waste management in residential colonies
  • Waste management for food outlets - processing industry
  • Hotel Industries and Corporate Sectors
  • Scientific waste water treatment and recycling.
  • Biological-Sanitizers
Urban Solid Waste?

• Household waste
    - Solid waste
  • Recyclable
  • Non recyclable (Biodegradable)
    - Waste water
  • Reusable
  • Non reusable (Chemicals and heavy metal contaminated)
• Commercial activity waste
• Industrial waste
• Horticulture waste
• Animal waste

Any waste management process begins with the identification of waste materials and their sources.

Urban Waste Management

Solid Waste:
• Segregate waste at the time of generation
• Collect segregated waste
• Recycle waste materials
• Process non recyclable materials in decentralized manner

Waste Water:
• Segregate different streams of waste water/s
• Install filter/s according to reuse requirement

All very simple and easy to do.

Scientific Waste Management Tools

Physical Treatment:
• Reduction in volume/s and weight/s
• Reducing the size of waste material/s

Biological Treatment:
• Solid sanitizers
• Deodorizers
• Microbial cultures for accelerated decomposition
• Microbes for waste conversion

>> Eco Friendly Waste Water Recycling

>> Kitchen Waste Vermicompost System

>> NSDL Booklet